The Tashahhud ( تَشَهُّد ) is the testimony of faith which is to be recited during Salat while in the sitting position. It is derived from the shahadah ( ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ), which occurs in various forms throughout the Quran approximately thirty-plus times.

[3:18] GOD bears witness that there is no god except He, and so do the angels and those who possess knowledge. Truthfully and equitably, He is the absolute god; there is no god but He, the Almighty, Most Wise.

(١٨) شَهِدَ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

[Sura 47 “Muhammad”:19] You shall know that: “There is no other god beside GOD,” and ask forgiveness of your sins and the sins of all believing men and women. GOD is fully aware of your decisions and your ultimate destiny.

(١٩) فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ

This statement predates Muhammad and even the creation of the human being and is the sole testimony that humans must adhere to if we want to have a chance of being redeemed in the Hereafter.

[7:172] Recall that your Lord summoned all the descendants of Adam, and had them bear witness for themselves: “Am I not your Lord?” They all said, “Yes. We bear witness.” Thus, you cannot say on the Day of Resurrection, “We were not aware of this.”

 وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ شَهِدْنَا أَنْ تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَٰذَا غَافِلِينَ

Like all our religious practices, our Salat and the words we utter must be 100% dedicated to God alone and, therefore, not mention the name of any other entity besides God in this sacred act.

[6:162] Say, “My Contact Prayers (Salat), my worship practices, my life and my death, are all devoted absolutely to GOD alone, the Lord of the universe.

(١٦٢) قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

[72:18] The places of worship belong to GOD; do not call on anyone else beside GOD.

(١٨) وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

[39:45] When GOD ALONE is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter shrink with aversion. But when others are mentioned beside Him, they become satisfied.*

(٤٥) وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ اشْمَأَزَّتْ قُلُوبُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ

Additionally, our Salat was originally taught and passed down from Abraham. Therefore anything we say should not be in line with what we would expect Abraham to have said in his Salat.

[16:123] Then we inspired you (Muhammad) to follow the religion of Abraham, the monotheist; he never was an idol worshiper.

(١٢٣) ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Except if we consult the Hadith literature regarding this matter, it states that we are to mention the name of the prophet, Muhammad, in our Salat. The inclusion of any other entity in our Salat and specifically Tashahhud creates numerous conflicts with the verses of the Quran.

  • Our shahadah and the Salat must mention God alone and be dedicated to God alone (6:162, 39:45, 4:36)
  • The Salat predates Muhammad (16:123, 21:73)
  • It would have been impossible for Abraham to have mentioned Muhammad’s name in his Salat
  • We are prohibited to make any distinction among God’s messengers (2:136, 2:285, 3:84, 4:150-152)

But even if we consult the Hadith literature regarding what exactly it claims that the tashahhud is, we see that there is no consistency. Below are 16 different Sahih (authentic) sources, each stating a slightly different version of the Tashhud.

What is interesting is that many of these narrations state that “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to teach us tashahhud just as he used to teach us a Surah of the Qur’an.” If this was true, then we would expect to see every narration regarding how to state the tashahhud to be identical, as this is what we find in the Quran. Except, this is not the case, as there are numerous variations of this statement.

Below are some of the multiple narrations regarding what should be specifically stated in the supposed tashahhud:

Sahih Muslim 403a
https://sunnah.com/muslim:403a
Sunan Abi Dawud 974
https://sunnah.com/abudawud:974
Jami` at-Tirmidhi 290
https://sunnah.com/tirmidhi:290
‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏All greetings, all blessings, all prayers, all good deeds are for God. The peace upon you, O prophet, and God’s mercy and His blessings. The peace upon us, and upon the righteous servants of God. I bear witness that there is no god except God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is a messenger of God.
Sahih Muslim 404a
https://sunnah.com/muslim:404a
التَّحِيَّاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُAll greetings, all good deeds, all prayers are for God. Peace be upon you, O prophet, and God’s mercy and His blessings. Peace upon us, and upon the rightoues servants of God. I bear witness that there is no god except God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger.
Sunan an-Nasa’i 1164
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1164
Sunan Ibn Majah 899
https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah:899
Mishkat al-Masabih 3149
https://sunnah.com/mishkat:3149
Sunan an-Nasa’i 1170
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1170
Sunan an-Nasa’i 1171
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1171
Sunan an-Nasa’i 1277
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1277
Sunan Ibn Majah 900
https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah:900
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُAll greetings to God and prayers and good deeds. Peace be upon you, O prophet, and God’s mercy and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the rightoeus servants of God. I bear witness that there is no god except God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger.
Sunan an-Nasa’i 1174
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1174
التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُAll greetings, all blessings, all prayers, all good deeds are for God. Peace be upon you, O prophet, and God’s mercy and His blessings. Peace upon us, and upon the rightoues servants of God. I bear witness that there is no god except God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger.
Mishkat al-Masabih 916
https://sunnah.com/mishkat:916
Sunan an-Nasa’i 1175
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1175
بِسم الله وَبِاللَّهِ التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ الْجَنَّةَ وَأَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ النَّارِIn the name of God and with God. All greetings are for God, and prayers, and good deeds. Peace be upon you, O prophet, and God’s mercy and His blessings. Peace be upon us, and upon God’s righteous servants. I bear witness that there is no god except God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger. I ask God for Paradise, and I seek refuge in God from the Fire.
Muwatta Malik
https://sunnah.com/malik/3/56
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ الزَّاكِيَاتُ لِلَّهِ الطَّيِّبَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُAll greetings to God. All purity to God. All good deeds, all prayers are for God. Peace upon you, O prophet, and God’s mercy and His blessings. Peace upon us and upon God’s righteous servants. I bear witness that there is no god except God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger.

How is it possible that there are so many variations on such a common statement that is supposed to be recited every single time a believer does Salat? And the fact that numerous of these narrations claim that this was taught to them by the prophet himself and repeated just like the verses of the Quran sheds even more doubt on the overall reliability of Hadith and Hadith sciences.

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رُمْحِ بْنِ الْمُهَاجِرِ، أَخْبَرَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، وَعَنْ طَاوُسٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُعَلِّمُنَا التَّشَهُّدَ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا السُّورَةَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ فَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ وَفِي رِوَايَةِ ابْنِ رُمْحٍ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا الْقُرْآنَ ‏.‏

Ibn `Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to teach us tashahhud just as he used to teach us a Surah of the Qur’an, and he would say: All services rendered by words, acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah’s upright servants. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. In the narration of Ibn Rumh (the words are): “As he would teach us the Qur’an.”

Sahih Muslim 403a
https://sunnah.com/muslim:403a

After Prophet’s Death

As if the lack of consistency in what should be such a straightforward statement does not garner enough doubt regarding the credibility of the Hadith besides the Quran, the tashahhud gets even stranger with the following Hadith, which states that it was changed after the prophet died.

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو نُعَيْمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سَيْفٌ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ مُجَاهِدًا، يَقُولُ حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سَخْبَرَةَ أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ، يَقُولُ عَلَّمَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَكَفِّي بَيْنَ كَفَّيْهِ التَّشَهُّدَ، كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنِي السُّورَةَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ‏.‏ وَهْوَ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْنَا، فَلَمَّا قُبِضَ قُلْنَا السَّلاَمُ‏.‏ يَعْنِي عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏

Narrated Ibn Mas`ud: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) taught me the Tashah-hud as he taught me a Sura from the Qur’an, while my hand was between his hands. (Tashah-hud was) all the best compliments and the prayers and the good things are for Allah. Peace and Allah’s Mercy and Blessings be on you, O Prophet! Peace be on us and on the pious slaves of Allah, I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and I also testify that Muhammad is Allah’s slave and His Apostle. (We used to recite this in the prayer) during the lifetime of the Prophet (ﷺ) , but when he had died, we used to say, “Peace be on the Prophet.”

Sahih al-Bukhari 6265
https://sunnah.com/bukhari:6265

This shows that even among the fabricators of Hadith, they could not escape the grammatical problems their tashhahud caused once the prophet passed. This is because we cannot greet a dead person. Similarly, according to the Quran, a dead person cannot be a messenger or prophet. To say Muhammad “is” a messenger (rasool) or prophet (nabi) is incorrect. The proper expression would be to state he “was” ( kanna / كَانَ ) a messenger or prophet.

[19:41] Mention in the scripture Abraham; he was a saint, a prophet.

(٤١) وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَبِيًّا

[19:51] Mention in the scripture Moses. He was devoted, and he was a messenger prophet.

(٥١) وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مُوسَىٰ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مُخْلَصًا وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَبِيًّا

[3:67] Abraham was neither Jewish, nor Christian; he was a monotheist submitter. He never was an idol worshiper.

(٦٧) مَا كَانَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَلَا نَصْرَانِيًّا وَلَٰكِنْ كَانَ حَنِيفًا مُسْلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Quran Alone

The tashahhud is probably single-handedly one of the most oft-repeated mutawatir, statements among believers, yet even for what should be such a cut-and-dry statement, there are numerous conflicting narratives as to what exactly this statement was at the time of the prophet, according to Hadith. So if the transmitters of Hadith could not preserve such a simple common statement, how much less reliable are all the other supposed statements from the prophet that believers are to form their religion upon?

This shows that the Hadith, besides the Quran, at a minimum, should not be treated as a reliable source if it can’t even provide a consistent answer to such a basic statement. But realistically, for anyone who is unbiased and wants to follow God alone, this should sever as an unquestionable clear proof that all Hadith besides the Quran should be rejected. The Quran is our only consistent source.

[39:23] GOD has revealed herein the best Hadith; a book that is consistent, and points out both ways (to Heaven and Hell). The skins of those who reverence their Lord cringe therefrom, then their skins and their hearts soften up for GOD’s message. Such is GOD’s guidance; He bestows it upon whomever He wills. As for those sent astray by GOD, nothing can guide them.

 اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُتَشَابِهًا مَثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ

[39:29] GOD cites the example of a man who deals with disputing partners (Hadith), compared to a man who deals with only one consistent source (Quran). Are they the same? Praise be to GOD; most of them do not know.

ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا رَجُلًا فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ مُتَشَاكِسُونَ وَرَجُلًا سَلَمًا لِرَجُلٍ هَلْ يَسْتَوِيَانِ مَثَلًا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Unlike other Hadith, The Quran contains no contradictions (4:82).

[4:82] Why do they not study the Quran carefully? If it were from other than GOD, they would have found in it numerous contradictions.

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِنْدِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

Additionally, the Quran is the testimony that should supersede all other testimonies irrespective of how “authentic” the said other source claims to be.

[6:19] Say, “Whose testimony is the greatest?” Say, “GOD’s. He is the witness between me and you that this Quran has been inspired to me, to preach it to you and whomever it reaches. Indeed, you bear witness that there are other gods beside GOD.” Say, “I do not testify as you do; there is only one god, and I disown your idolatry.”

 قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَادَةً قُلِ اللَّهُ شَهِيدٌ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنْذِرَكُمْ بِهِ وَمَنْ بَلَغَ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَىٰ قُلْ لَا أَشْهَدُ قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

Appendix

حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ، وَقُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، وَأَبُو كَامِلٍ الْجَحْدَرِيُّ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ الأُمَوِيُّ – وَاللَّفْظُ لأَبِي كَامِلٍ – قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ عَنْ حِطَّانَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الرَّقَاشِيِّ قَالَ صَلَّيْتُ مَعَ أَبِي مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيِّ صَلاَةً فَلَمَّا كَانَ عِنْدَ الْقَعْدَةِ قَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ أُقِرَّتِ الصَّلاَةُ بِالْبِرِّ وَالزَّكَاةِ – قَالَ – فَلَمَّا قَضَى أَبُو مُوسَى الصَّلاَةَ وَسَلَّمَ انْصَرَفَ فَقَالَ أَيُّكُمُ الْقَائِلُ كَلِمَةَ كَذَا وَكَذَا قَالَ فَأَرَمَّ الْقَوْمُ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَيُّكُمُ الْقَائِلُ كَلِمَةَ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَأَرَمَّ الْقَوْمُ فَقَالَ لَعَلَّكَ يَا حِطَّانُ قُلْتَهَا قَالَ مَا قُلْتُهَا وَلَقَدْ رَهِبْتُ أَنْ تَبْكَعَنِي بِهَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ أَنَا قُلْتُهَا وَلَمْ أُرِدْ بِهَا إِلاَّ الْخَيْرَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو مُوسَى أَمَا تَعْلَمُونَ كَيْفَ تَقُولُونَ فِي صَلاَتِكُمْ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَطَبَنَا فَبَيَّنَ لَنَا سُنَّتَنَا وَعَلَّمَنَا صَلاَتَنَا فَقَالَ ‏”‏ إِذَا صَلَّيْتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا صُفُوفَكُمْ ثُمَّ لْيَؤُمَّكُمْ أَحَدُكُمْ فَإِذَا كَبَّرَ فَكَبِّرُوا وَإِذَا قَالَ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ فَقُولُوا آمِينَ ‏.‏ يُجِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ فَإِذَا كَبَّرَ وَرَكَعَ فَكَبِّرُوا وَارْكَعُوا فَإِنَّ الإِمَامَ يَرْكَعُ قَبْلَكُمْ وَيَرْفَعُ قَبْلَكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ فَتِلْكَ بِتِلْكَ وَإِذَا قَالَ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ ‏.‏ فَقُولُوا اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ ‏.‏ يَسْمَعُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ عَلَى لِسَانِ نَبِيِّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ ‏.‏ وَإِذَا كَبَّرَ وَسَجَدَ فَكَبِّرُوا وَاسْجُدُوا فَإِنَّ الإِمَامَ يَسْجُدُ قَبْلَكُمْ وَيَرْفَعُ قَبْلَكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ فَتِلْكَ بِتِلْكَ ‏.‏ وَإِذَا كَانَ عِنْدَ الْقَعْدَةِ فَلْيَكُنْ مِنْ أَوَّلِ قَوْلِ أَحَدِكُمُ التَّحِيَّاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

Hattan b. Abdullah al-Raqashi reported: I observed prayer with Abu Musa al-Ashari and when he was in the qadah, one among the people said: The prayer has been made obligatory along with piety and Zakat. He (the narrator) said: When Abu Musa had finished the prayer after salutation he turned (towards the people) and said: Who amongst you said such and such a thing? A hush fell on the people. He again said: Who amongst you has said such and such a thing? A hush fell on the people. He (Abu Musa) said: Hattan, it is perhaps you that have uttered it. He (Hattan) said No. I have not uttered it. I was afraid that you might be annoyed with me on account of this. A person amongst the people said: It was I who said it, and in this I intended nothing but good. Abu Musa said: Don’t you know what you have to recite in your prayers? Verily the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) addressed us and explained to us all its aspects and taught us how to observe prayer (properly). He (the Holy Prophet) said: When you pray make your rows straight and let anyone amongst you act as your Imam. Recite the takbir when he recites it and when he recites: Not of those with whom Thou art angry, nor of those who go astray, say: Amin. Allah would respond you. And when he (the Imam) recites the takbir, you may also recite the takbir, for the Imam bows before you and raises himself before you. Then the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: The one is equivalent to the other. And when he says: Allah listens to him who praises Him, you should say: O Allah, our Lord, to Thee be the praise, for Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, has vouchsafed (us) through the tongue of His Apostle (ﷺ) that Allah listens to him who praises Him. And when he (the Imam) recites the takbir and prostrates, you should also recite the takbir and prostrate, for the Imam prostrates before you and raises himself before you. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: The one is equivalent to the other. And when he (the Imam) sits for Qada (for tashahhud) the first words of every one amongst you should be: All services rendered by words, acts of worship and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Apostle, and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the upright servants of Allah. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger.

Sahih Muslim 404a
https://sunnah.com/muslim:404a

أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْثَرٌ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ أَبِي الأَحْوَصِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ عَلَّمَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم التَّشَهُّدَ فِي الصَّلاَةِ وَالتَّشَهُّدَ فِي الْحَاجَةِ فَأَمَّا التَّشَهُّدُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ ‏ “‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ إِلَى آخِرِ التَّشَهُّدِ ‏.‏

It was narrated that ‘Abdullah said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) taught us the tashahhud for prayer and the tashahhud for Al-Hajah. The tashahhud for prayer is: At-tahiyyatu lillahi was-salawatu wat-tayyibat, as-salamu ‘alaika ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatAllahi wa baraktuhu. As-salamu ‘alaina wa ‘ala ‘ibad illahis-salihin, ashahdu an la illaha ill-Allah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluhu (Allah compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah (SWT) and his blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah (SWT). I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).’ (to the end of the tashahhud)”

Sunan an-Nasa’i 1164
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1164

أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، وَطَاوُسٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُعَلِّمُنَا التَّشَهُّدَ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا الْقُرْآنَ وَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbas said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to teach us the tashahhud as he taught us the Quran, and he used to say: : ‘At-tahiyyatu lillahi was-salawatu wat-tayyibat, as-salamu ‘alaika ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatAllahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu ‘alaina wa ‘ala ‘ibad illahis-salihin, ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluhu (All compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah (SWT) and his blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah (SWT). I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).’

Sunan an-Nasa’i 1174
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1174

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ نُمَيْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ، عَنْ شَقِيقِ بْنِ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ خَلاَّدٍ الْبَاهِلِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ، عَنْ شَقِيقٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا إِذَا صَلَّيْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قُلْنَا السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ قَبْلَ عِبَادِهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى جِبْرَائِيلَ وَمِيكَائِيلَ وَعَلَى فُلاَنٍ وَفُلاَنٍ ‏.‏ يَعْنُونَ الْمَلاَئِكَةَ ‏.‏ فَسَمِعَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ فَقَالَ ‏ “‏ لاَ تَقُولُوا السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّلاَمُ فَإِذَا جَلَسْتُمْ فَقُولُوا التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ فَإِنَّهُ إِذَا قَالَ ذَلِكَ أَصَابَتْ كُلَّ عَبْدٍ صَالِحٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ ‏.‏ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَنْبَأَنَا الثَّوْرِيُّ، عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ، وَالأَعْمَشِ، وَحُصَيْنٍ، وَأَبِي، هَاشِمٍ وَحَمَّادٍ عَنْ أَبِي وَائِلٍ، وَعَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنِ الأَسْوَدِ، وَأَبِي الأَحْوَصِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ نَحْوَهُ ‏.‏

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَعْمَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا قَبِيصَةُ، أَنْبَأَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، وَمَنْصُورٍ، وَحُصَيْنٍ، عَنْ أَبِي وَائِلٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، ح قَالَ وَحَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ، وَالأَسْوَدِ، وَأَبِي الأَحْوَصِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ كَانَ يُعَلِّمُهُمُ التَّشَهُّدَ. فَذَكَرَ نَحْوَهُ ‏.‏

It was narrated that ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud said: “When we performed prayer with the Prophet (ﷺ) we said: ‘Peace be upon Allah from His slaves, peace be upon Jibra’il and Mika’il and so-and-so and so-and- so.’ The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) heard us and said: ‘Do not say peace (Salam) be upon Allah, for He is As-Salam. When you sit (during prayer) say: At-Tahiyyatu lillahi was-salawatu wat-tayyibatu; as- salamu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu; as- salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadillahis-salihin (All compliments, prayers and good words are due to Allah; peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings; peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah).” For as you say that it will reach every righteous slave in the heavens and on earth. (Then say: ) “Ashhadu an la ilaha illallah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasuluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).”
(Another chain) with similar wording.
(Another chain) that Abdullah bin Masud said: “The Prophet (ﷺ) used to teach us the Tashahhud.” And he mentioned similarly.

Sunan Ibn Majah 899
https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah:899

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ: عَلَّمَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ التَّشَهُّدَ فِي الصَّلَاةِ وَالتَّشَهُّدَ فِي الْحَاجَةِ قَالَ: التَّشَهُّدُ فِي الصَّلَاةِ: «التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ» . وَالتَّشَهُّدُ فِي الْحَاجَةِ: «إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ نَسْتَعِينُهُ وَنَسْتَغْفِرُهُ وَنَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ شُرُورِ أَنْفُسنَا من يهد اللَّهُ فَلَا مُضِلَّ لَهُ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ» . وَيَقْرَأُ ثَلَاثَ آيَاتٍ (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسلمُونَ) (يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تساءلون وَالْأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا) (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيما) رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ وَالدَّارِمِيُّ وَفِي جَامِعِ التِّرْمِذِيِّ فَسَّرَ الْآيَاتِ الثَّلَاثَ سُفْيَانُ الثَّوْرِيُّ وَزَادَ ابْنُ مَاجَهْ بَعْدَ قَوْلِهِ: «إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ نَحْمَدُهُ» وَبَعْدَ قَوْلِهِ: «من شرور أَنْفُسنَا وَمن سيئات أَعمالنَا» وَالدَّارِمِيُّ بَعْدَ قَوْلِهِ «عَظِيمًا» ثُمَّ يَتَكَلَّمُ بِحَاجَتِهِ وَرَوَى فِي شَرْحِ السُّنَّةِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ فِي خطْبَة الْحَاجة من النِّكَاح وَغَيره

‘Abdallah b. Mas’ud said: God’s Messenger taught us the tashahhud in the prayer and in case of some need, saying that the tashahhud in the prayer is, “The adorations of the tongue, acts of worship and all good things belong to God. Peace, and God’s mercy and blessings be upon you, O Prophet. Peace be upon us and upon God’s upright servants. I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.” The tashahhud in case of some need is, “Praise be to God from whom we ask help and pardon. We seek refuge in God from the evils within ourselves. He whom God guides if has no one who can lead him astray, and he whom He leads astray has no one to guide him. I testify that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.” And one should recite three verses: “You who believe, fear God as He should be feared, and die only as Muslims;” (Al-Qur’an 3: 102). “You who believe . . . fear God by whom you ask your mutual rights, and reverence the wombs. God has been watching over you;” (Al-Qur’an 4: 1 which has ‘O Mankind.’). “You who believe, if you fear God and say what is true He will make your deeds sound and forgive you your sins. He who obeys God and His Messenger has attained a mighty success” (Al-Qur’an 33: 70). Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Darimi transmitted it. In Tirmidhi’s Jami’ Sufyan ath-Thauri gave a commentary on the three verses. Ibn Majah added “whom we praise” after “praise be to God”, and “from our evil actions” after “from the evils within ourselves.” After “mighty success” Darimi added that one should then express what he needs. In Sharh as-sunna it is transmitted on the authority of Ibn Mas’ud concerning the form of words for some need, whether marriage or something else.

Mishkat al-Masabih 3149
https://sunnah.com/mishkat:3149

عَن جَابِرٍ قَالَ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُعَلِّمُنَا التَّشَهُّدَ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا السُّورَةَ من الْقُرْآن: «بِسم الله وَبِاللَّهِ التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ الْجَنَّةَ وَأَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ النَّارِ» . رَوَاهُ النَّسَائِيّ

Jabir said: God’s Messenger used to teach us the tashahhud just as he would teach us a sura of the Qur’an, saying, “In the name of God and with His grace. The adorations of the tongue, acts of worship and all good things are due to God. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and God’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon God’s upright servants. I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. I ask God for paradise, and I seek refuge in God from hell.”
Nasa’i transmitted it.

Mishkat al-Masabih 916
https://sunnah.com/mishkat:916

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَبْدٍ الْقَارِيِّ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، وَهُوَ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ يُعَلِّمُ النَّاسَ التَّشَهُّدَ يَقُولُ قُولُوا التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ الزَّاكِيَاتُ لِلَّهِ الطَّيِّبَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az- Zubayr from Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abd al-Qari that he heard Umar ibn al- Khattab say, while he was teaching people the tashahhud from the mimbar, “Say, Greetings belong to Allah. Pure actions belong to Allah. Good words and prayers belong to Allah. Peace on you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun. I testify that there is no god except Allah. And I testify that Muhammad is His slave and His messenger.”
‘At-tahiyatu lillah, az-zakiyatu lillah, at-tayibatu wa’s-salawatu lillah. As-salamu alayka ayyuha’nnabiyyu wa rahmatu’llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu alayna wa ala ibadi’llahi s-salihin. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa ‘llah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluh.”

Muwatta Malik
https://sunnah.com/malik/3/56

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، وَطَاوُسٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُعَلِّمُنَا التَّشَهُّدَ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا الْقُرْآنَ وَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

Ibn ‘Abbas said: The Messenger of Allah( may peace be upon him) used to teach us the tashahhud as he would teach us the Qur’an, and would say: The blessed adoration of the tongue, acts of worship (and) all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah’s upright servants. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is Allah’s apostle (peace be upon him).

Sunan Abi Dawud 974
https://sunnah.com/abudawud:974

أَخْبَرَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الْعَسْكَرِيُّ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا غُنْدَرٌ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ، وَمَنْصُورٍ، وَحَمَّادٍ، وَمُغِيرَةَ، وَأَبِي، هَاشِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي وَائِلٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ فِي التَّشَهُّدِ ‏ “‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَبُو هَاشِمٍ غَرِيبٌ ‏.‏

It was narrated from ‘Abdullah that: The Prophet (ﷺ) said in the tashahhud: “At-tahiyyatu lillahi was-salawatu wat-tayyibat, as-salamu ‘alaika ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatAllahi wa baraktuhu. As-salamu ‘alaina wa ‘ala ‘ibad illahis-salihin, ashahdu an la illaha ill-Allah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluhu (Allah compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah (SWT) and his blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah (SWT). I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).”

Sunan an-Nasa’i 1170
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1170

أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا الْفَضْلُ بْنُ دُكَيْنٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سَيْفٌ الْمَكِّيُّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ مُجَاهِدًا، يَقُولُ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ، يَقُولُ عَلَّمَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم التَّشَهُّدَ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا السُّورَةَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ وَكَفُّهُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ ‏ “‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

Abdullah said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) taught us the tashahhud just as he taught us a surah from the Quran: “At-tahiyyatu lillahi was-salawatu wat-tayyibat, as-salamu ‘alaika ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatAllahi wa baraktuhu. As-salamu ‘alaina wa ‘ala ‘ibad illahis-salihin, ashahdu an la illaha ill-Allah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluhu (Allah compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah (SWT) and his blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah (SWT). I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).”

Sunan an-Nasa’i 1171
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1171

أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا الْمُعْتَمِرُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَيْمَنَ، – وَهُوَ ابْنُ نَابِلٍ – يَقُولُ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُعَلِّمُنَا التَّشَهُّدَ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا السُّورَةَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ ‏ “‏ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَبِاللَّهِ التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ الْجَنَّةَ وَأَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ النَّارِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

It was narrated that Jabir said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to teach us the tashahhud just as he would teach us a surah of the Quran: “Bismillah, wa billahi. At-tahiyyatu lillahi was-salawatu wat-tayyibat, as-salamu ‘alaika ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatAllahi wa baraktuhu. As-salamu ‘alaina wa ‘ala ‘ibad illahis-salihin, ashahdu an la illaha ill-Allah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluhu. A’sal Allahal-jannah wa a’udhu Billahi min an-nar (Allah compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah (SWT) and his blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah (SWT). I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. I ask Allah for Paradise and I seek refuge with Allah from the Fire).’

Sunan an-Nasa’i 1175
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1175

أَخْبَرَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَبُو عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ الْمَخْزُومِيُّ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، وَمَنْصُورٌ، عَنْ شَقِيقِ بْنِ سَلَمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا نَقُولُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُفْرَضَ التَّشَهُّدُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى جِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَائِيلَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ لاَ تَقُولُوا هَكَذَا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هُوَ السَّلاَمُ وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

It was narrated that Ibn Mas’ud said: “Before the tashahhud was enjoined, when we prayed we used to say: ‘Peace (As-Salam) be upon Allah (SWT), pace be upon Jibril, peace be upon Mika’il.’ The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘Do not say this, for indeed Allah (SWT), the Mighty and Sublime, is As-Salam. Rather say: “At-tahiyyatu lillahi wasalawatu wat-tayibaat, as-salamu ‘alaika ayah-Nabiyyu wa rahmatAllahi wa baraktuhu. As-salamu ‘alaina a ‘ala ibad illahis-salihin, ashadu an la ilaha ill Allah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluhu. (All compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.)”

Sunan an-Nasa’i 1277
https://sunnah.com/nasai:1277

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رُمْحٍ، أَنْبَأَنَا اللَّيْثُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، وَطَاوُسٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ يُعَلِّمُنَا التَّشَهُّدَ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا السُّورَةَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ فَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbas said: “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to teach us the Tashah-hud as he used to teach us a Surah of the Qur’an. He used to say: ‘At-Tahiyyatul-Mubarakatus salawatut-tayyibatu lillah; As-salamu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu; as-salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadillahis-salihin. Ashhadu an la ilaha illallah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasuluhu (All blessed compliments and good prayers are due to Allah; peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings; peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).’”

Sunan Ibn Majah 900
https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah:900

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، وَطَاوُسٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُعَلِّمُنَا التَّشَهُّدَ كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا الْقُرْآنَ فَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رَوَى عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ الرُّؤَاسِيُّ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ نَحْوَ حَدِيثِ اللَّيْثِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ ‏.‏ وَرَوَى أَيْمَنُ بْنُ نَابِلٍ الْمَكِّيُّ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ عَنْ جَابِرٍ وَهُوَ غَيْرُ مَحْفُوظٍ ‏.‏ وَذَهَبَ الشَّافِعِيُّ إِلَى حَدِيثِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ فِي التَّشَهُّدِ ‏.‏

Ibn Abbas narrated: “Allah’s Messenger would teach us the Tashah-hud just as he would teach us the Qur’an. He would say: (At-Tahiyyatu, al mubarakatu, as-salawatu at-tayyibatulillah. Salamun alaika ayyuhan-naibiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu, salamun alaina wa ala ibadalillahis-salihin. Ashhadu an la ilaha illallah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa Raduluh.) ‘All greetings, goodness, prayers, and pure words are for Allah. Peace be upon you O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and His blessings, Peace be upon us and all of the righteous worshippers of Allah. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is Allah’s worshipper and Messenger.'”

Jami` at-Tirmidhi 290
https://sunnah.com/tirmidhi:290

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