The word Salat ( الصَّلَاة ) comes from the root و ص ل, which means to join, connect, or establish a connection. This is the reason Salat is translated as the Contact Prayer. Some individuals confuse the root for Salat with the root ص ل و, which means to pray, supplicate, or bless. This is why the Salat is not just a normal prayer, but specifically our mechanism to make contact with our Creator.

An example of the root utilized in the Quran can be seen in the following verses:

[13:19] Is one who recognizes that your Lord’s revelations to you are the truth equal to one who is blind? Only those who possess intelligence will take heed.
[13:20] They are the ones who fulfill their pledge to GOD, and do not violate the covenant.
[13:21] They join what GOD has commanded to be joined, reverence their Lord, and fear the dreadful reckoning.
[13:22] They steadfastly persevere in seeking their Lord, observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), spend from our provisions to them secretly and publicly, and counter evil with good. These have deserved the best abode.
[13:23] They enter the gardens of Eden, together with the righteous among their parents, their spouses, and their children. The angels will enter to them from every door.
[13:24] “Peace be upon you, because you steadfastly persevered. What a joyous destiny.”
[13:25] As for those who violate GOD’s covenant after pledging to keep it, and sever what GOD has commanded to be joined, and commit evil, they have incurred condemnation; they have incurred the worst destiny.

 أَفَمَنْ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمَىٰ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ
الَّذِينَ يُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَنْقُضُونَ الْمِيثَاقَ
 وَالَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَنْ يُوصَلَ وَيَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ وَيَخَافُونَ سُوءَ الْحِسَابِ
 وَالَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِمْ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنْفَقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً وَيَدْرَءُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عُقْبَى الدَّارِ
 جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ يَدْخُلُونَهَا وَمَنْ صَلَحَ مِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَدْخُلُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ كُلِّ بَابٍ
سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِمَا صَبَرْتُمْ فَنِعْمَ عُقْبَى الدَّارِ
الَّذِينَ يَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَنْ يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ

Al-Salat vs. Supplication

The Quran uses multiple words for different forms of supplication. Each word has a specific meaning and root associated with it.

ArabicTransliterationMeaningRoot
نَادُواnādūCallن د ي
ادْعُواid’ʿūInvoke or Imploreد ع و
اعْبُدُواuʿ’budūServe or Worshipع ب د
صَلُّواṣallūPray or Blessص ل و
الصَّلَاةَl-ṣalataThe Contact Prayerو ص ل

This shows that the Salat (Contact Prayer) is different than other forms of supplication and, as we will see, comes with specific requirements that are not imposed on the other forms of prayer or supplication.

Abraham Was First Person Who Was Taught the Salat

The first person who was taught how to perform the Salat was Abraham. Prior to Abraham, there is no mention of Salat in the Quran by any of God’s messengers.

[21:73] We made them imams who guided in accordance with our commandments, and we taught them how to work righteousness, and how to observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and the obligatory charity (Zakat). To us, they were devoted worshipers.

(٧٣) وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءَ الزَّكَاةِ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ

Salat is a Ritual Passed Down From Abraham

One of the words in the Quran for religious rituals or rites is the word nasik ( نَاسِكَ ). This word is often utilized in conjunction with Abraham and the rituals that he passed down (2:128, 2:196, 2:200, 6:162, 22:34, 22:67).

For instance, we see that Abraham made the following prayer after establishing the Sacred Masjid as a focal point for the people as well as a place for prayer. As we saw in 21:73, God, in response to this prayer, taught Abraham how to perform the Salat. This indicates that Salat is a ritualistic worship practice.

[2:128] “Our Lord, make us submitters to You, and from our descendants let there be a community of submitters to You. Teach us the rites of our religion, and redeem us. You are the Redeemer, Most Merciful.

(١٢٨) رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُسْلِمَةً لَكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَا إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

[22:67] For each congregation, we have decreed a set of rites that they must uphold. Therefore, they should not dispute with you. You shall continue to invite everyone to your Lord. Most assuredly, you are on the right path.

(٦٧) لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنْسَكًا هُمْ نَاسِكُوهُ فَلَا يُنَازِعُنَّكَ فِي الْأَمْرِ وَادْعُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ إِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ هُدًى مُسْتَقِيمٍ

Muhammad was Commanded to Follow the Rituals of Abraham

The rites and rituals of our religion all come from Abraham, and Muhammad was commanded to follow the religion of Abraham (milat Ibrahim). The word milat ( مِلَّةَ ) comes from the root which means to dictate but also signifies the specific religious practices of Abraham. So this expression, milat Ibrahim ( مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ), can be understood as the religious practices dictated through Abraham.

[2:130] Who would forsake the religion of Abraham (milat Ibrahim), except one who fools his own soul? We have chosen him in this world, and in the Hereafter he will be with the righteous.

 وَمَنْ يَرْغَبُ عَنْ مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلَّا مَنْ سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

[16:123] Then we inspired you (Muhammad) to follow the religion of Abraham (milat Ibrahim), the monotheist; he never was an idol worshiper.

(١٢٣) ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

[6:161] Say, “My Lord has guided me in a straight path—the perfect religion of Abraham (milat Ibrahim), monotheism. He never was an idol worshiper.” [6:162] Say, “My Contact Prayers (Salat), my worship practices, my life and my death, are all devoted absolutely to GOD alone, the Lord of the universe.

(١٦١) قُلْ إِنَّنِي هَدَانِي رَبِّي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ دِينًا قِيَمًا مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
(١٦٢) قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

It is worth mentioning that the Quran never had to inform Muhammad what the Salat is or how to perform the Salat. This is because this practice was already in existence since it was established by Abraham.

Salat Must Be Dedicated to God Alone

It is incumbent that the Salat should be dedicated to God alone and no other names should be mentioned in the Salat.

[1:5] You alone we worship; You alone we ask for help.

(٥) إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

[98:5] All that was asked of them was to worship GOD, devoting the religion absolutely to Him alone, observe the contact prayers (Salat), and give the obligatory charity (Zakat). Such is the perfect religion.

(٥) وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاءَ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَذَٰلِكَ دِينُ الْقَيِّمَةِ

[39:45] When GOD ALONE is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter shrink with aversion. But when others are mentioned beside Him, they become satisfied.

(٤٥) وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ اشْمَأَزَّتْ قُلُوبُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ

[72:18] The places of worship belong to GOD; do not call on anyone else beside GOD.

(١٨) وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

The Purpose of Salat is to Remember God

[20:14] “I am GOD; there is no other god beside Me. You shall worship Me alone, and observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) to remember Me.

(١٤) إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي

[62:10] Once the Contact Prayer (Salat) is completed, you may spread through the land to seek GOD’s bounties, and continue to remember GOD frequently, that you may succeed.

 فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانْتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

The Salat Prohibits Evil

[29:45] You shall recite what is revealed to you of the scripture, and observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), for the Contact Prayers prohibit evil and vice. But the remembrance of GOD (through Salat) is the most important objective. GOD knows everything you do.

 اتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ

Paying Attention During Salat

The Quran describes that the believers are reverent during their Salat.

[23:2] who are reverent during their Contact Prayers (Salat).

(٢) الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ

The Quran says that the hypocrites observed the Salat lazily both in coming to the Salat (9:54) and standing for the Salat (4:142).

[9:54] What prevented the acceptance of their spending is that they disbelieved in GOD and His messenger, and when they observed the Contact Prayers (Salat), they observed them lazily, and when they gave to charity, they did so grudgingly.

 وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَنْ تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ وَلَا يَأْتُونَ الصَّلَاةَ إِلَّا وَهُمْ كُسَالَىٰ وَلَا يُنْفِقُونَ إِلَّا وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ

[4:142] The hypocrites think that they are deceiving GOD, but He is the One who leads them on. When they get up for the Contact Prayer (Salat), they get up lazily. That is because they only show off in front of the people, and rarely do they think of GOD.

 إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

The following verse informs us that one needs to not be intoxicated when performing Salat so that the person is aware of what they are saying.

[4:43] O you who believe, do not observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) while intoxicated, so that you know what you are saying. Nor after sexual orgasm without bathing, unless you are on the road, traveling; if you are ill or traveling, or you had urinary or fecal-related excretion (such as gas), or contacted the women (sexually), and you cannot find water, you shall observe Tayammum (dry ablution) by touching clean dry soil, then wiping your faces and hands therewith. GOD is Pardoner, Forgiver.

 يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنْتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

It is worth noting that the word used for intoxicated ( سُكَارَىٰ / sukara) is not limited to just drunkness. The Quran also describes people who are intoxicated by lust (15:72), shock (15:15, 22:2), or sleep (50:19) as well. So this informs us that one’s mind should be focused when they are performing their Salat.

Salat Has Specific Times

There are five Salat times mentioned in the Quran, and the Salat should be completed at their respective times.

  • Dawn (Fajr) Salat: 24:58 & 11:114
  • Noon (Zuhr) Salat: 17:78
  • Afternoon (Asr) Salat: 11:114
  • Sunset (Maghrib) Salat: 11:114
  • Night (Isha) Salat: 24:58

[14:40] “My Lord, make me one who consistently observes the Contact Prayers (Salat), and also my children. Our Lord, please answer my prayers.

(٤٠) رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ

[4:103] Once you complete your Contact Prayer (Salat), you shall remember GOD while standing, sitting, or lying down.* Once the war is over, you shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat); the Contact Prayers (Salat) are decreed for the believers at specific times.

 فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمْ فَإِذَا اطْمَأْنَنْتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَوْقُوتًا

More details regarding the Salat times can be found here and here.

Prior to Salat, One Should Ablute

The Quran informs us that prior to performing Salat, one should perform ablution. If water can’t be found, the person can perform dry ablution (Tayammum). If one is unclean due to sexual orgasm, they should bathe (4:43).

[5:6] O you who believe, when you observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), you shall:
(1) wash your faces,
(2) wash your arms to the elbows,
(3) wipe your heads, and
(4) wash your feet to the ankles.
If you were unclean due to sexual orgasm, you shall bathe. If you are ill, or traveling, or had any digestive excretion (urinary, fecal, or gas), or had (sexual) contact with the women, and you cannot find water, you shall observe the dry ablution (Tayammum) by touching clean dry soil, then rubbing your faces and hands. GOD does not wish to make the religion difficult for you; He wishes to cleanse you and to perfect His blessing upon you, that you may be appreciative.

 يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ مِنْهُ مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَٰكِنْ يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Qibla of Salat is Ka’aba (Masjid Al-Haram)

The Qibla is the direction one faces when performing Salat. The Quran informs us that during Salat we are to face the Sacred Masjid (Masjid Al-Haram), which is the Ka’aba in Mecca. Details showing that the Ka’aba and the Sacred Masjid are the same place can be found here.

[2:125] We have rendered the shrine (the Ka’aba) a focal point for the people, and a safe sanctuary. You may use Abraham’s shrine as a prayer house. We commissioned Abraham and Ismail: “You shall purify My house for those who visit, those who live there, and those who bow and prostrate.”

(١٢٥) وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًا وَاتَّخِذُوا مِنْ مَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَنْ طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

[2:149] Wherever you go, you shall turn your face (during Salat) towards the Sacred Masjid. This is the truth from your Lord. GOD is never unaware of anything you all do. [2:150] Wherever you go, you shall turn your face (during Salat) towards the Sacred Masjid; wherever you might be, you shall turn your faces (during Salat) towards it. Thus, the people will have no argument against you, except the transgressors among them. Do not fear them, and fear Me instead. I will then perfect My blessings upon you, that you may be guided. [2:151] such as the sending of a messenger from among you to recite our revelations to you, purify you, teach you the scripture and wisdom, and to teach you what you never knew. [2:152] You shall remember Me, that I may remember you, and be thankful to Me; do not be unappreciative. [2:153] O you who believe, seek help through steadfastness and the Contact Prayers (Salat). GOD is with those who steadfastly persevere.

Salat Must Be Recited in a Moderate Tone

The following verse informs us that the Salat consists of something that should be recited in a moderate tone.

[17:110] Say, “Call Him GOD, or call Him Most Gracious; whichever name you use, to Him belongs the best names.” You shall not utter your Contact Prayers (Salat) too loudly, nor secretly; use a moderate tone.

قُلِ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَٰنَ أَيًّا مَا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ وَلَا تَجْهَرْ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا

Salat Under Unusual Conditions

The Quran informs us that under unusual circumstances, one may pray while walking or riding. This means under normal conditions, one should be stationary to perform Salat.

[2:239] Under unusual circumstances, you may pray while walking or riding. Once you are safe, you shall commemorate GOD as He taught you what you never knew.

(٢٣٩) فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالًا أَوْ رُكْبَانًا فَإِذَا أَمِنْتُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُمْ مَا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ

Salat Consists of Standing

The Quran consistently uses the term aqīm ( أَقِمِ ) in conjunction with Salat ( الصَّلَاة ). This word means stand but is typically translated as “observe” as in practice.

[2:3] who believe in the unseen, observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), and from our provisions to them, they give to charity.

(٣) الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ

Salat Consists of Bowing

The following verse describes Salat, which we know from the above verses consists of specific movements, showing that bowing is also used in conjunction with Salat.

[2:43] You shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and bow down with those who bow down.

(٤٣) وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ

[5:55] Your real allies are GOD and His messenger, and the believers who observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and they bow down.

(٥٥) إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ

Salat has Fixed a Length

According to 4:101 that during war the Salat can be shortened. Since 4:102 consists of two units and each group does only a single unit, then this must be a shortened form of the Salat.

[4:101] When you travel, during war, you commit no error by shortening your Contact Prayers (Salat), if you fear that the disbelievers may attack you. Surely, the disbelievers are your ardent enemies.

وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُبِينًا

Salat Details

The following verse informs us of the following details about Salat

  • Salat contains standing
  • Salat contains prostrations
  • Each unit of Salat ends with a prostration
  • Can be done in a group
  • There can be a person leading Salat

[4:102] When you are with them, and lead the Contact Prayer (Salat) for them, let some of you stand guard; let them hold their weapons, and let them stand behind you as you prostrate. Then, let the other group that has not prayed take their turn praying with you, while the others stand guard and hold their weapons. Those who disbelieved wish to see you neglect your weapons and your equipment, in order to attack you once and for all. You commit no error, if you are hampered by rain or injury, by putting down your weapons, so long as you remain alert. GOD has prepared for the disbelievers a shameful retribution.

 وَإِذَا كُنْتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُوا فَلْيَكُونُوا مِنْ وَرَائِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَائِفَةٌ أُخْرَىٰ لَمْ يُصَلُّوا فَلْيُصَلُّوا مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ وَدَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُمْ مَيْلَةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنْ كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِنْ مَطَرٍ أَوْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَىٰ أَنْ تَضَعُوا أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ وَخُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُهِينًا

41021وَإِذَاAnd when [in the future]wa-idhā
41022كُنْتَyou (prophet) werekunta
41023فِيهِمْamong themfīhim
41024فَأَقَمْتَand you (prophet) ledfa-aqamta
41025لَهُمُfor themlahumu
41026الصَّلَاةَthe Contact Prayer (Salat),l-ṣalata
41027فَلْتَقُمْthen let [it] stand guardfaltaqum
41028طَائِفَةٌa groupṭāifatun
41029مِنْهُمْover themmin’hum
410210مَعَكَalong with you (prophet)maʿaka
410211وَلْيَأْخُذُواand let them takewalyakhudhū
410212أَسْلِحَتَهُمْtheir arms / weapons.asliḥatahum
410213فَإِذَاThen when [in the future]fa-idhā
410214سَجَدُواthey prostrated,sajadū
410215فَلْيَكُونُواthen let them befalyakūnū
410216مِنْfrommin
410217وَرَائِكُمْbehind you [all]warāikum
410218وَلْتَأْتِand let [it] come (forward)waltati
410219طَائِفَةٌa group –ṭāifatun
410220أُخْرَىٰanother,ukh’rā
410221لَمْ(which has) notlam
410222يُصَلُّوا[they] prayed,yuṣallū
410223فَلْيُصَلُّواthen let them prayfalyuṣallū
410224مَعَكَalong with you (prophet),maʿaka
410225وَلْيَأْخُذُواand let them takewalyakhudhū
410226حِذْرَهُمْtheir precautionsḥidh’rahum
410227وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْand their arms / weapons.wa-asliḥatahum
410228وَدَّ[He] wishedwadda
410229الَّذِينَthose whoalladhīna
410230كَفَرُوا[they] disbelievedkafarū
410231لَوْiflaw
410232تَغْفُلُونَyou [all] neglecttaghfulūna
410233عَنْ[about]ʿan
410234أَسْلِحَتِكُمْyour arms / weaponsasliḥatikum
410235وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْand your baggage / equipmentwa-amtiʿatikum
410236فَيَمِيلُونَso (that) they (can) assaultfayamīlūna
410237عَلَيْكُمْ[upon] you [all]ʿalaykum
410238مَيْلَةًan attackmaylatan
410239وَاحِدَةًsingle (once and for all).wāḥidatan
410240وَلَاBut (there is) nowalā
410241جُنَاحَblamejunāḥa
410242عَلَيْكُمْupon you [all]ʿalaykum
410243إِنْifin
410244كَانَit waskāna
410245بِكُمْwith you [all]bikum
410246أَذًىsuffering / harm / hamperingadhan
410247مِنْfrommin
410248مَطَرٍrainmaṭarin
410249أَوْoraw
410250كُنْتُمْyou [all] arekuntum
410251مَرْضَىٰsickmarḍā
410252أَنْthatan
410253تَضَعُواyou [all] lay downtaḍaʿū
410254أَسْلِحَتَكُمْyour arms / weapons,asliḥatakum
410255وَخُذُواbut take [you all]wakhudhū
410256حِذْرَكُمْyour precautions.ḥidh’rakum
410257إِنَّIndeed,inna
410258اللَّهَGodl-laha
410259أَعَدَّ[He] preparedaʿadda
410260لِلْكَافِرِينَfor the disbelieverslil’kāfirīna
410261عَذَابًاa punishment / retributionʿadhāban
410262مُهِينًاhumiliating / shameful.muhīnan

More details regarding the analysis of this verse can be found here.

Friday Salat is Done in a Congregation

In Classical Arabic, the word for congregation and Friday ( الْجُمُعَة / l-jumuʿah) are the same. These verses inform us that Salat must take priority over business and entertainment, and its observance is obligatory upon the believers.

[62:9] O you who believe, when the Congregational Prayer (Salat Al-Jumu’ah) is announced on Friday, you shall hasten to the commemoration of GOD, and drop all business. This is better for you, if you only knew.

 يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

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