In recent times, some have made the claim that the real origin of the prophet Muhammad and the Quran is not Mecca, but instead 800 miles north in Petra. One major challenge to this narrative is the specific locations mentioned in the Quran that are associated with events in the prophet’s life that have almost no historical connection to Petra but are well established in association with Mecca.

Below is a list of locations mentioned in the Quran that are connected with certain events during the prophet’s life. If one wanted to reestablish the birthplace of the prophet, major events in his life, and the origin of the Quran to Petra then one would need to have to provide proof that these locations are either not their real locations as we understand them today or somehow show that these locations are better coupled with Petra rather than Mecca.

Yathrib (Medina)

Yathrib (Medina), 24°28′12″N 39°36′36″E
Distance to Mecca (Kaaba): 271 miles / 437 km
Distance to Yathrib (Medina): – miles / – km
Distance to Petra: 556 miles / 895 km

Yathrib was the city that the prophet and the early believers immigrated to after being driven out of Mecca. This event is known as the Hijra and marks the start of the Islamic calendar. Prior to the messenger’s arrival, the name of the city was known as Yathrib, but after the Hijra it adopted the name Medina Al-Nabi, City of the Prophet, or what is more commonly known as simply Medina.

[33:13] A group of them said, “O people of Yathrib, you cannot attain victory; go back.” Others made up excuses to the prophet: “Our homes are vulnerable,” when they were not vulnerable. They just wanted to flee.

 وَإِذْ قَالَتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ يَاأَهْلَ يَثْرِبَ لَا مُقَامَ لَكُمْ فَارْجِعُوا وَيَسْتَأْذِنُ فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمُ النَّبِيَّ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ بُيُوتَنَا عَوْرَةٌ وَمَا هِيَ بِعَوْرَةٍ إِنْ يُرِيدُونَ إِلَّا فِرَارًا

The word Medina in context to the prophet is referenced twice in the Quran, but since Medina simply means City it can be argued that this is just referencing the general city as opposed to the specific location.

[9:101] Among the Arabs around you, there are hypocrites. Also, among the people of Medina (city dwellers), there are those who are accustomed to hypocrisy. You do not know them, but we know them. We will double the retribution for them, then they end up committed to a terrible retribution.

 وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُونَ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ مَرَدُوا عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ سَنُعَذِّبُهُمْ مَرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٍ

[9:120] Neither the people of Medina (dwellers of the city), nor the Arabs around them, shall seek to stay behind the messenger of GOD (when he mobilizes for war). Nor shall they give priority to their own affairs over supporting him. This is because they do not suffer any thirst, or any effort, or hunger in the cause of GOD, or make a single step that enrages the disbelievers, or inflict any hardship upon the enemy, without having it written down for them as a credit. GOD never fails to recompense those who work righteousness.

 مَا كَانَ لِأَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُمْ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ أَنْ يَتَخَلَّفُوا عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَرْغَبُوا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُصِيبُهُمْ ظَمَأٌ وَلَا نَصَبٌ وَلَا مَخْمَصَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَطَئُونَ مَوْطِئًا يَغِيظُ الْكُفَّارَ وَلَا يَنَالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّ نَيْلًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُمْ بِهِ عَمَلٌ صَالِحٌ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

Badr

Badr, 23°44′N 38°46′E
Distance to Mecca (Kaaba): 188 miles / 303 km
Distance to Yathrib (Medina): 94 miles / 151 km
Distance to Petra: 628 miles / 1011 km

[3:123] GOD has granted you victory at Badr, despite your weakness. Therefore, you shall observe GOD, to show your appreciation.

(١٢٣) وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ بِبَدْرٍ وَأَنْتُمْ أَذِلَّةٌ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Hunayn

Hunayn, 21°26′N 40°21′E,
Distance to Mecca (Kaaba): 6 miles / 9.65 km
Distance to Yathrib (Medina): 280 miles / 450 km
Distance to Petra: 802 miles / 1292 km

[9:25] GOD has granted you victory in many situations. But on the day of Hunayn, you became too proud of your great number. Consequently, it did not help you at all, and the spacious earth became so straitened around you, that you turned around and fled.

 لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٍ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنْكُمْ شَيْئًا وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُمْ مُدْبِرِينَ

Mecca

Mecca, 21°25′21″N 39°49′24″E
Distance to Mecca (Kaaba): – miles / – km
Distance to Yathrib (Medina): 271 miles / 437 km
Distance to Petra: 796 miles / 1,281 km

[48:24] He is the One who withheld their hands of aggression against you, and withheld your hands of aggression against them in the valley of Mecca, after He had granted you victory over them. GOD is Seer of everything you do.

 وَهُوَ الَّذِي كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنْكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِنْ بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا

Hajj

The Quran specifies certain locations for Hajj that one needs to reach in order to fulfill this religious rite. If one is to consider Petra as the original location of the Kaaba then all the currently established locations would have to be considered fabrications and these locations would have to be proven to actually reside in Petra within proximity to each other.

Safa and Marwah

Safa and Marwah, 21°25′25″N 39°49′38″E
Distance to Mecca (Kaaba): 1.8 miles / 3 km
Distance to Yathrib (Medina): 275 miles / 442 km
Distance to Petra: 796 miles / 1,281 km

[2:158] The knolls of Safa and Marwah are among the rites decreed by GOD. Anyone who observes Hajj or ‘Umrah commits no error by traversing the distance between them. If one volunteers more righteous works, then GOD is Appreciative, Omniscient.

 إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِنْ شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا وَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ

‘Arafaat

Arafaat, 21.3549° N, 39.9841° E
Distance to Mecca (Kaaba): 13 miles / 21 km
Distance to Yathrib (Medina): 284.6 miles / 458 km
Distance to Petra: 806.5 miles / 1,298 km

[2:198] You commit no error by seeking provisions from your Lord (through commerce). When you file from ‘Arafaat, you shall commemorate GOD at the Sacred Location (of Muzdalifah). You shall commemorate Him for guiding you; before this, you had gone astray.

 لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ تَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُمْ مِنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ عِنْدَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ وَاذْكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَاكُمْ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الضَّالِّينَ

Becca

Becca is the ancient name for Mecca. This is similar to how Yathrib was the alternate name for Medina. Becca is also the location where the Ka’aba is located. The Ka’aba is where pilgrims go in order to perform Hajj. This is also depicted in Pslam 84 of the Bible.

[3:96] The most important shrine established for the people is the one in Becca; a blessed beacon for all the people.

[3:97] In it are clear signs: the station of Abraham. Anyone who enters it shall be granted safe passage. The people owe it to GOD that they shall observe Hajj to this shrine, when they can afford it. As for those who disbelieve, GOD does not need anyone.

 إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِلْعَالَمِينَ

 فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَنْ دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

The above verses show that Becca is where the “station of Abraham / مَقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ” is located, as well as The House (Shrine) / الْبَيْتِ, and where the followers of the Quran are obligated to go in order to observe Hajj. We see this reference to the station of Abraham also utilized in 2:125.

[2:125] We have rendered the shrine (the Ka’aba) a focal point for the people, and a safe sanctuary. You may use Abraham’s station (shrine) as a prayer house. We commissioned Abraham and Ismail: “You shall purify My house for those who visit, those who live there, and those who bow and prostrate.”

 وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًا وَاتَّخِذُوا مِنْ مَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَنْ طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

If we continue reading we see that the attention is brough back to this Shrine, but this time uses the term Sacred Masjid when discussing the Qibla as our focal point when we perform Salat. This informs us that these places are one and the same.

[2:144] We have seen you turning your face about the sky (searching for the right direction). We now assign a Qiblah that is pleasing to you. Henceforth, you shall turn your face towards the Sacred Masjid. Wherever you may be, all of you shall turn your faces towards it. Those who received the previous scripture know that this is the truth from their Lord. GOD is never unaware of anything they do.

 قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

[2:149] Wherever you go, you shall turn your face (during Salat) towards the Sacred Masjid. This is the truth from your Lord. GOD is never unaware of anything you all do.

(١٤٩) وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِنَّهُ لَلْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

It makes sense that the Shrine that God elevates in the Quran (52:3-4) which was established by Abraham (2:127) would be the unifying direction the believers would be commanded to face when we do Salat. Not only that, but God told Muhammad that he was to follow Milat Ibrahim (the religion of Abraham) as all the religious rites of the Quran all came from Abraham.

[16:123] Then we inspired you (Muhammad) to follow the religion of Abraham, the monotheist; he never was an idol worshiper.

 ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Kaaba

Some argue taht the Kaaba and the Sacred House are two distinct locations. The following verses prove that these two names refer to one and the same place, as well as the location the believers are to travel to in order to perform Hajj.

[5:95] O you who believe, do not kill any game during pilgrimage. Anyone who kills any game on purpose, his fine shall be a number of livestock animals that is equivalent to the game animals he killed. The judgment shall be set by two equitable people among you. They shall make sure that the offerings reach the Ka’bah. Otherwise, he may expiate by feeding poor people, or by an equivalent fast to atone for his offense. GOD has pardoned past offenses. But if anyone returns to such an offense, GOD will avenge it. GOD is Almighty, Avenger.

 يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَأَنْتُمْ حُرُمٌ وَمَنْ قَتَلَهُ مِنْكُمْ مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاءٌ مِثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ هَدْيًا بَالِغَ الْكَعْبَةِ أَوْ كَفَّارَةٌ طَعَامُ مَسَاكِينَ أَوْ عَدْلُ ذَٰلِكَ صِيَامًا لِيَذُوقَ وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَمَّا سَلَفَ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَيَنْتَقِمُ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انْتِقَامٍ

[5:97] GOD has appointed the Ka’bah, the Sacred House, to be a sanctuary for the people, and also the Sacred Months, the offerings (to the Sacred Masjid), and the garlands marking them. You should know that GOD knows everything in the heavens and the earth, and that GOD is Omniscient.

 جَعَلَ اللَّهُ الْكَعْبَةَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ قِيَامًا لِلنَّاسِ وَالشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَالْهَدْيَ وَالْقَلَائِدَ ذَٰلِكَ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Different Names for the Kaaba

The Quran uses various names in refernce to the Ka’bah:

  • The House (Shrine) / الْبَيْتِ / l-bayti (2:125, 2:127, 3:96, 3:97, 8:35, 11:73, 33:33, 52:4, 106:3)
  • Sacred Masjid / الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ / l-masjidi l-ḥarām (2:144, 2:149, 2:150, 2:191, 2:196, 2:217, 5:2…
  • [Your] Sacred House / الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ / -bayta l-ḥarama (14:37, 5:97)
  • The Sacred House (Shrine) / الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ / l-bayta l-ḥarām (5:2)
  • The Ancient House (Shrine) / الْبَيْتِ الْعَتِيقِ / l-bayti l-ʿatīqi (22:33)

Additional proof that these titles are one and the same can be found in the following verses:

[22:25] Surely, those who disbelieve and repulse others from the path of GOD, and from the Sacred Masjid that we designated for all the people—be they natives or visitors—and seek to pollute it and corrupt it, we will afflict them with painful retribution.

 إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَيَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ الَّذِي جَعَلْنَاهُ لِلنَّاسِ سَوَاءً الْعَاكِفُ فِيهِ وَالْبَادِ وَمَنْ يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

[22:26] We appointed Abraham to establish the Shrine: “You shall not idolize any other god beside Me, and purify My shrine for those who visit it, those who live near it, and those who bow and prostrate.

(٢٦) وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَنْ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

[22:27] “And proclaim that the people shall observe Hajj pilgrimage. They will come to you walking or riding on various exhausted (means of transportation). They will come from the farthest locations.”

(٢٧) وَأَذِّنْ فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالًا وَعَلَىٰ كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِنْ كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ

The Quraish Tribe

Quraish Tribe, Mecca, 21°25′21″N 39°49′24″E
Distance to Mecca (Kaaba): – miles / – km
Distance to Yathrib (Medina): 271 miles / 437 km
Distance to Petra: 796 miles / 1,281 km

The Quraish were the custodians of the Sacred Masjid, Ka’aba, as shown in 106:3, and the ones who barred the believers from being able to perform their Hajj pilgrimage to this location.

[106:1] This should be cherished by Quraish.
[106:2] The way they cherish the caravans of the winter and the summer.
[106:3] They shall worship the Lord of this shrine.

(١) لِإيلافِ قُرَيشٍ

(٢) إِيلَافِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَاءِ وَالصَّيْفِ

(٣) فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَٰذَا الْبَيْتِ

[48:25] It is they who disbelieved and barred you from the Sacred Masjid, and even prevented your offerings from reaching their destination. There were believing men and women (within the enemy camp) whom you did not know, and you were about to hurt them, unknowingly. GOD thus admits into His mercy whomever He wills. If they persist, He will requite those among them who disbelieve with a painful retribution.

 هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْيَ مَعْكُوفًا أَنْ يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌ مُؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَاءٌ مُؤْمِنَاتٌ لَمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَنْ تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُمْ مِنْهُمْ مَعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

[48:26] While those who disbelieved were enraged, and their hearts were filled with the pride of the days of ignorance, GOD blessed His messenger and the believers with peaceful contentment, and directed them to uphold the word of righteousness. This is what they well deserved. GOD is fully aware of all things.

 إِذْ جَعَلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَىٰ وَكَانُوا أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

[48:27] GOD has fulfilled His messenger’s truthful vision: “You will enter the Sacred Masjid, GOD willing, perfectly secure, and you will cut your hair or shorten it (as you fulfill the pilgrimage rituals) there. You will not have any fear. Since He knew what you did not know, He has coupled this with an immediate victory.”

 لَقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا فَجَعَلَ مِنْ دُونِ ذَٰلِكَ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا

[8:34] Have they not deserved GOD’s retribution, by repelling others from the Sacred Masjid, even though they are not the custodians thereof? The true custodians thereof are the righteous, but most of them do not know.

 وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

[8:35] Their Contact Prayers (Salat) at the shrine (Ka’bah) were no more than a mockery and a means of repelling the people (by crowding them out). Therefore, suffer the retribution for your disbelief.

 وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُهُمْ عِنْدَ الْبَيْتِ إِلَّا مُكَاءً وَتَصْدِيَةً فَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ

We see that the believers were granted victory when they were able to enter Mecca and perform their Hajj. In order for them to be able to do this, they must have been able to overcome the Quraish people who resided there.

[9:3] A proclamation is herein issued from GOD and His messenger to all the people on the great day of pilgrimage, that GOD has disowned the idol worshipers, and so did His messenger. Thus, if you repent, it would be better for you. But if you turn away, then know that you can never escape from GOD. Promise those who disbelieve a painful retribution.

 وَأَذَانٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الْأَكْبَرِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَرَسُولُهُ فَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ وَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

Conclusion

Occam’s razor is a theory that postulates that the simplest explanation that requires the fewest assumptions to reach the witnessed outcome is typically the one that is most likely to be correct. So when given the choice between a very simple straightforward explanation or a complex web of conspiracy theories to reach a conclusion we are much safer going with the simpler model.

When we apply Occam’s razor to the question of where did Muhammad and the Quran originate, either Mecca or Petra, we can map out the assumptions that need to be made to determine which choice is the likelier possibility.

If we are to assume that Petra is the correct location, then it means that each of these locations specified in the Quran are all fabrications from where they are known to be located today. That the history associated with these locations is all fabricated. That there was a 1400-year-old conspiracy to hide and alter this information. That the masses did not object to, or recognize this change until a lone obscure researcher figured this out in the 21st century. That God knowing that the people would do this didn’t warn us about such actions.

Alternatively, if we accept that the Kaaba and Mecca we know today are the same Kaaba and Mecca that are referenced in the Quran 1400 years ago, and the same location where people have been performing Hajj since the practice was first instituted by Abraham as specified in the Quran then none of these assumptions need to be made and no grand conspiracies need to be adopted in order to have a coherent, consistent, narrative as depicted in the Quran.

[39:23] GOD has revealed herein the best Hadith; a book that is consistent, and points out both ways (to Heaven and Hell). The skins of those who reverence their Lord cringe therefrom, then their skins and their hearts soften up for GOD’s message. Such is GOD’s guidance; He bestows it upon whomever He wills. As for those sent astray by GOD, nothing can guide them.

 اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُتَشَابِهًا مَثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s