The Quran informs us that Muhammad was the final prophet.
[33:40] Muhammad was not the father of any man among you. He was a messenger (rasool) of GOD and the final prophet (nabi). GOD is fully aware of all things.
مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا
No where in the Quran do we see that Muhammad was the final messenger. Such a claim actually would contradict the Quran.
God informs us that He selected messengers from among the angels as well as the humans.
[22:75] GOD chooses from among the angels messengers, as well as from among the people. GOD is Hearer, Seer.
اللَّهُ يَصْطَفِي مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا وَمِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ
[35:1] Praise be to GOD, Initiator of the heavens and the earth, and appointer of the angels to be messengers with wings—two, three, and four (wings). He increases the creation as He wills. GOD is Omnipotent.
الحَمدُ لِلَّهِ فاطِرِ السَّماواتِ وَالأَرضِ جاعِلِ المَلائِكَةِ رُسُلًا أُولي أَجنِحَةٍ مَثنىٰ وَثُلاثَ وَرُباعَ يَزيدُ فِي الخَلقِ ما يَشاءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلىٰ كُلِّ شَيءٍ قَديرٌ
This is further confirmed through the angel messengers who visited Abraham and Lot.
[11:69] When our messengers went to Abraham with good news, they said, “Peace.” He said, “Peace,” and soon brought a roasted calf.
وَلَقَدْ جَاءَتْ رُسُلُنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ بِالْبُشْرَىٰ قَالُوا سَلَامًا قَالَ سَلَامٌ فَمَا لَبِثَ أَنْ جَاءَ بِعِجْلٍ حَنِيذٍ
[11:81] (The angels) said, “O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers, and these people cannot touch you. You shall leave with your family during the night, and let not anyone of you look back, except your wife; she is condemned along with those who are condemned. Their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning soon enough?”
قَالُوا يَالُوطُ إِنَّا رُسُلُ رَبِّكَ لَنْ يَصِلُوا إِلَيْكَ فَأَسْرِ بِأَهْلِكَ بِقِطْعٍ مِنَ الَّيْلِ وَلَا يَلْتَفِتْ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا امْرَأَتَكَ إِنَّهُ مُصِيبُهَا مَا أَصَابَهُمْ إِنَّ مَوْعِدَهُمُ الصُّبْحُ أَلَيْسَ الصُّبْحُ بِقَرِيبٍ
If Muhammad was the final messenger then that would contradict the fact that the angels are also messengers of God. So if Muhammad was the final messenger then that the angels would have ceased to be messengers from after him.
On the other hand, no where in the Quran do you see the angels ever referenced as prophets (nabi). So Muhammad being the final prophet would not contradict the status of the angels.
Every Community Receives a Messenger
God informs us that He sends messengers to every community.
[16:36] We have sent a messenger to every community, saying, “You shall worship GOD, and avoid idolatry.” Subsequently, some were guided by GOD, while others were committed to straying. Roam the earth and note the consequences for the rejectors.
وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ هَدَى اللَّهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلَالَةُ فَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ
If Muhammad was the last messenger then it would contradict since Muhammad would have not been able to be sent to the communities that originated after his passing. And for anyone who may claim that Muhammad has not passed, the Quran addresses this theory as well.
[39:30] You (Muhammad) will surely die, just like they will die.
إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ وَإِنَّهُمْ مَيِّتُونَ
Quranic Prophecy of Future Messengers
God informs us in the Quran that as long as there are children of Adam on Earth that He will continue sending messengers.
[7:35] O children of Adam, when messengers come to you from among you, and recite My revelations to you, those who take heed and lead a righteous life, will have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.
يَابَنِي آدَمَ إِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ رُسُلٌ مِنْكُمْ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِي فَمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ وَأَصْلَحَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
It is worth pointing out that when the Arabic word translated as revelations in the above verse is ayat and this is not limited to scripture, but proofs as well.
God informs us that it is a human tendency that after a community receives a messenger they tend to assume that God will not send any more messengers after that one. This example is shown in the dialogue by the believing Egyptian and Pharoah regarding Moses.
[40:34] Joseph had come to you before that with clear revelations, but you continued to doubt his message. Then, when he died you said, “GOD will not send any other messenger after him. (He was the last messenger)!”** GOD thus sends astray those who are transgressors, doubtful.
وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ يُوسُفُ مِنْ قَبْلُ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا زِلْتُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِمَّا جَاءَكُمْ بِهِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا هَلَكَ قُلْتُمْ لَنْ يَبْعَثَ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ رَسُولًا كَذَٰلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌ مُرْتَابٌ
The Quran also has several prophecies in regards to future messengers to come after Muhammad. The most notable example of this is in 3:81.
[3:81] GOD took a covenant from the prophets, saying, “I will give you the scripture and wisdom. Afterwards, a messenger will come to confirm all existing scriptures. You shall believe in him and support him.” He said, “Do you agree with this, and pledge to fulfill this covenant?” They said, “We agree.” He said, “You have thus borne witness, and I bear witness along with you.”
وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ النَّبِيِّينَ لَمَا آتَيْتُكُمْ مِنْ كِتَابٍ وَحِكْمَةٍ ثُمَّ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَكُمْ لَتُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهِ وَلَتَنْصُرُنَّهُ قَالَ أَأَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَخَذْتُمْ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكُمْ إِصْرِي قَالُوا أَقْرَرْنَا قَالَ فَاشْهَدُوا وَأَنَا مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ
Since Muhammad was definitely a prophet (33:40) then he would have been part of this covenant. This is further explained in the following verse where it specifies that Muhammad was among the prophets included in this covenant.
[33:7] Recall that we took from the prophets their covenant, including you (O Muhammad), Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus the son of Mary. We took from them a solemn pledge.*
وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَمِنْكَ وَمِنْ نُوحٍ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُمْ مِيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا
One prophecy that is mentioned in the Quran that was for future generations after Muhammad is that of the smoke prophecy in Sura 44.
[44:10] Therefore, watch for the day when the sky brings a profound smoke. [44:11] It will envelop the people; this is a painful retribution. [44:12] “Our Lord, relieve this retribution for us; we are believers.”
The Quran also informs us of the people’s response regarding the messenger that warned them about this prophecy.
[44:13] Now that it is too late, they remember! An enlightening messenger had come to them.
أَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ الذِّكْرَىٰ وَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مُبِينٌ
[44:14] But they turned away from him, saying, “Well educated, but crazy!”
ثُمَّ تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَقَالُوا مُعَلَّمٌ مَجْنُونٌ
Muhammad was called many things by many people, but one term that neither his followers or his opponents ever considered him was well educated. Instead this was one of the miracles of the Quran, that it was revealed through a gentile who was not educated in the previous scriptures nor in the traditional sense.
[16:103] We are fully aware that they say, “A human being is teaching him!” The tongue of the source they hint at is non-Arabic, and this is a perfect Arabic tongue.
وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُمْ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّمَا يُعَلِّمُهُ بَشَرٌ لِسَانُ الَّذِي يُلْحِدُونَ إِلَيْهِ أَعْجَمِيٌّ وَهَٰذَا لِسَانٌ عَرَبِيٌّ مُبِينٌ
Because of these reasons and many more items that were covered in previous articles it would be a contradiction of the verses of the Quran to claim that Muhammad was the last messenger.