Respect for the Father
[4:22] Do not marry the women who were previously married to your fathers – existing marriages are exempted and shall not be broken – for it is a gross offense, and an abominable act.
[4:23] Prohibited for you (in marriage) are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, the sisters of your fathers, the sisters of your mothers, the daughters of your brother, the daughters of your sister, your nursing mothers, the girls who nursed from the same woman as you, the mothers of your wives, the daughters of your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage – if the marriage has not been consummated, you may marry the daughter. Also prohibited for you are the women who were married to your genetic sons. Also, you shall not be married to two sisters at the same time – but do not break up existing marriages. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
Mutual Attraction And Dowry Required
[4:24] Also prohibited are the women who are already married, unless they flee their disbelieving husbands who are at war with you.* These are GOD’s commandments to you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, so long as you pay them their due dowries. You shall maintain your morality, by not committing adultery. Thus, whoever you like among them, you shall pay them the dowry decreed for them. You commit no error by mutually agreeing to any adjustments to the dowry. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
*4:24 If believing women flee their disbelieving husbands who are at war with the believers, they do not have to obtain a divorce before remarriage. See 60:10.
[4:25] Those among you who cannot afford to marry free believing women, may marry believing slave women. GOD knows best about your belief, and you are equal to one another, as far as belief is concerned. You shall obtain permission from their guardians before you marry them, and pay them their due dowry equitably. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret lovers. Once they are freed through marriage, if they commit adultery, their punishment shall be half of that for the free women.* Marrying a slave shall be a last resort for those unable to wait. To be patient is better for you. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
*4:25 This law proves that the punishment for adultery could not possibly be stoning to death as stated in the laws of corrupted Muslims (see 24:2).
[4:26] GOD wills to explain things for you, and to guide you through past precedents, and to redeem you. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.
What is the reason that two people who nursed from the same woman should not get married?
For this to hold true is it the act of nursing or just drinking the same milk from the same woman that constitutes that the two should not get married?
Why is marrying a slave a last resort?
God tells us that as far as belief is concerned we are equal to one another. If someone is under duress they are more apt to make poor decisions to get out of the situation. If someone is a slave they could choose to marry to get out of slavery, but not because there is mutual attraction or that they even love the other person. They may even convince themselves that they do to be freed, but it will clearly cloud their judgment. It would be best for both parties if the person was already free and made the decision of marriage with a clear mind and not for the benefit of getting their freedom. If the only reason they marry is just because they want their freedom, they may not be faithful in the relationship. This also makes sense whey their punishment for committing adultery will be half of a free women.
There are three things needed for marriage: Mutual Attraction, Dowry, and Solemn Pledge.
Dowry is a financial transaction:
Write Down Financial Transactions
[2:282] O you who believe, when you transact a loan for any period, you shall write it down. An impartial scribe shall do the writing. No scribe shall refuse to perform this service, according to GOD’s teachings. He shall write, while the debtor dictates the terms. He shall observe GOD his Lord and never cheat. If the debtor is mentally incapable, or helpless, or cannot dictate, his guardian shall dictate equitably. Two men shall serve as witnesses; if not two men, then a man and two women whose testimony is acceptable to all.* Thus, if one woman becomes biased, the other will remind her. It is the obligation of the witnesses to testify when called upon to do so. Do not tire of writing the details, no matter how long, including the time of repayment. This is equitable in the sight of GOD, assures better witnessing, and eliminates any doubts you may have. Business transactions that you execute on the spot need not be recorded, but have them witnessed. No scribe or witness shall be harmed on account of his services. If you harm them, it would be wickedness on your part. You shall observe GOD, and GOD will teach you. GOD is Omniscient.
Is 2:282 only in the context of loans or any financial transaction?
Importance of not breaking up existing marriages
It is interesting that even in the context of marrying women who were previously married to our fathers, God recommends not breaking up existing marriages. Even though God calls this a gross offense and an abominable act. This just shows how important it is to maintain a marriage.
Causing separation in a marriage is something disbelievers conduct:
[2:102] They pursued what the devils taught concerning Solomon’s kingdom. Solomon, however, was not a disbeliever, but the devils were disbelievers. They taught the people sorcery, and that which was sent down through the two angels of Babel, Haroot and Maroot. These two did not divulge such knowledge without pointing out: “This is a test. You shall not abuse such knowledge.” But the people used it in such evil schemes as the breaking up of marriages. They can never harm anyone against the will of GOD. They thus learn what hurts them, not what benefits them, and they know full well that whoever practices witchcraft will have no share in the Hereafter. Miserable indeed is what they sell their souls for, if they only knew.
The Benefits of Wedded Bliss Baker’s research joins a small but growing number of studies pinpointing the varied health effects of marriage. One study, for example, showed that marital stress can double a person’s risk of developing diabetes. Another study, out of Sweden, showed women in marital distress had a three times greater risk of a second heart attack. And a third showed that positive marital interactions can boost immunity and reduce the risk of heart disease by keeping stress hormones low.
“The benefits are better physical health, more resistance to infection, fewer infections, and a reduced likelihood of dying from cancer, from heart disease, from all major killers,” psychologist and author John Gottman, PhD, tells WebMD. “The other health benefit is longevity: People live longer if they are in marital relationships, particularly if they are in good, satisfying relationships.” Gottman, considered by many to be a pioneer in the field of marriage research, is the James Mifflin Professor in the department of psychology at the University of Washington
In 46:15 God tells us the importance of the first thirty months in a child’s development. Research is backing up this Quranic claim as well.
“Neuroscience has now demonstrated that the first two years of life are so profoundly important to brain development that infants and toddlers who suffer from neglect may never fully recover. The story begins with an unprecedented study of Romanian orphans — abandoned infants warehoused by Ceausescu in government facilities, unloved and untouched.”
[46:15] We enjoined the human being to honor his parents. His mother bore him arduously, gave birth to him arduously, and took intimate care of him for thirty months. When he reaches maturity, and reaches the age of forty, he should say, “My Lord, direct me to appreciate the blessings You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and to do the righteous works that please You. Let my children be righteous as well. I have repented to You; I am a submitter.”