We learn from 3:81 that a messenger “رَسولٌ” confirms existing scripture while a prophet “نَبِيٍّ” is given a new scripture.
[3:81] GOD took a covenant from the prophets, saying, “I will give you the scripture and wisdom. Afterwards, a messenger will come to confirm all existing scriptures. You shall believe in him and support him.” He said, “Do you agree with this, and pledge to fulfill this covenant?” They said, “We agree.” He said, “You have thus borne witness, and I bear witness along with you.”
وَإِذ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ ميثاقَ النَّبِيّينَ لَما آتَيتُكُم مِن كِتابٍ وَحِكمَةٍ ثُمَّ جاءَكُم رَسولٌ مُصَدِّقٌ لِما مَعَكُم لَتُؤمِنُنَّ بِهِ وَلَتَنصُرُنَّهُ ۚ قالَ أَأَقرَرتُم وَأَخَذتُم عَلىٰ ذٰلِكُم إِصري ۖ قالوا أَقرَرنا ۚ قالَ فَاشهَدوا وَأَنا مَعَكُم مِنَ الشّاهِدينَ
Further evidence that messengers do not produce anything new can be seen by analyzing Sura 46 verse 9.
[46:9] Say, “I am not different from other messengers. I have no idea what will happen to me or to you. I only follow what is revealed to me. I am no more than a profound warner.”
قُل ما كُنتُ بِدعًا مِنَ الرُّسُلِ وَما أَدري ما يُفعَلُ بي وَلا بِكُم ۖ إِن أَتَّبِعُ إِلّا ما يوحىٰ إِلَيَّ وَما أَنا إِلّا نَذيرٌ مُبينٌ
Below is the word for word breakdown:
The meaning of the root ” ب د ع ” is the following:
to produce something new; begin a thing; find out a new thing; create a thing
This root only occurs only three other times in the Quran:
[2:117] The Initiator of the heavens and the earth: to have anything done, He simply says to it, “Be,” and it is.
بَديعُ السَّماواتِ وَالأَرضِ ۖ وَإِذا قَضىٰ أَمرًا فَإِنَّما يَقولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكونُ
[6:101] The Initiator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have a son, when He never had a mate? He created all things, and He is fully aware of all things.
بَديعُ السَّماواتِ وَالأَرضِ ۖ أَنّىٰ يَكونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَم تَكُن لَهُ صاحِبَةٌ ۖ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيءٍ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيءٍ عَليمٌ
[57:27] Subsequent to them, we sent our messengers. We sent Jesus the son of Mary, and we gave him the Injeel (Gospel), and we placed in the hearts of his followers kindness and mercy. But they invented hermitism which we never decreed for them. All we asked them to do was to uphold the commandments approved by GOD. But they did not uphold the message as they should have. Consequently, we gave those who believed among them their recompense, while many of them were wicked.
ثُمَّ قَفَّينا عَلىٰ آثارِهِم بِرُسُلِنا وَقَفَّينا بِعيسَى ابنِ مَريَمَ وَآتَيناهُ الإِنجيلَ وَجَعَلنا في قُلوبِ الَّذينَ اتَّبَعوهُ رَأفَةً وَرَحمَةً وَرَهبانِيَّةً ابتَدَعوها ما كَتَبناها عَلَيهِم إِلَّا ابتِغاءَ رِضوانِ اللَّهِ فَما رَعَوها حَقَّ رِعايَتِها ۖ فَآتَينَا الَّذينَ آمَنوا مِنهُم أَجرَهُم ۖ وَكَثيرٌ مِنهُم فاسِقونَ
This further reinforces that a messenger ” رَسولٌ ” do not produce anything new e.g. a new scripture.
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